“CAN A DEAD PERSON BE TAKEN TO COURT?” : CPR 19.8: A RECAP
There have been a number of search terms arriving on this blog recently relating to the appropriate procedure when a party has died. Today the question was “can a dead person be taken to court?” This may be an opportune time to remind people of the rules when you want to issue proceedings against someone who has died but there are no executors or administrators.
You cannot bring proceedings against a dead person. You can, however, bring proceedings against their estate. If a grant of probate or letters of administration have been taken out then there is no problem, proceedings are issued against the executors or administrators (in their capacity as executors or administrators).
The primary practical problem is that a claimant may be faced with a situation where there are no executors or administrators.
THE SOLUTION: CPR 19.8
The solution is provided by CPR 19.8:
(2) Where a defendant against whom a claim could have been brought has died and –
(a) a grant of probate or administration has been made, the claim must be brought against the persons who are the personal representatives of the deceased;
(b) a grant of probate or administration has not been made –
(i) the claim must be brought against ‘the estate of’ the deceased; and
(ii) the claimant must apply to the court for an order appointing a person to represent the estate of the deceased in the claim.
(3) A claim shall be treated as having been brought against ‘the estate of’ the deceased in accordance with paragraph (2)(b)(i) where –
(a) the claim is brought against the ‘personal representatives’ of the deceased but a grant of probate or administration has not been made; or
(b) the person against whom the claim was brought was dead when the claim was started.
(4) Before making an order under this rule, the court may direct notice of the application to be given to any other person with an interest in the claim.
(5) Where an order has been made under paragraphs (1) or (2)(b)(ii) any judgment or order made or given in the claim is binding on the estate of the deceased.”
WHEN SHOULD THE APPLICATION BE MADE?
The rules are silent on the issue of when an application should be made. However the obvious point for a claimant is that it has to be made prior to service. The application may, therefore, may as well be made when issuing.
The difficult issue may be who notice of the application should be served on. This is usually the person who it is proposed will be appointed to represent the estate of the deceased person.
WHO SHOULD BE APPOINTED?
Normally it is a named individual nominated by the insurer, sometimes a solicitor. If this cannot be agreed prior to issue (and it often is) then it is prudent to apply to court upon issue to determine who should be appointed to represent the estate.
DISCOVERING WHETHER OR NOT PROBATE HAS BEEN TAKEN OUT
The procedure for discovering whether or not probate or administration has been taken out is described in the Probate Service document obtainable here.